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Covid 19 Service delivery- Good Practice

During the Covid-19 lockdown regulations, all assessors at KYP Training have contacted every learner at least once a month by phone and also by regular email contact. Learners have been given one-to-one support and guidance for each unit completed and thorough feedback to help their journey and increase knowledge and understanding.

According to DG Allo (2020) the purpose of the study was to investigate the learners’ perception on Online Learning System in the midst of a COVID-19 pandemic. Pedagogically, before the pandemic occurred, lecturers provides lectures through face to face. Lecture material is explained by the lecturer in front of the class, then followed by interaction by giving the student feedback, and usually there is a task at the end.

‘students agree and like to study with group discussions, but awareness of this pandemic will suggest giving task in the form of individual duties. According to the learner, with individual assignments will make them more focus work and pour ideas on their task’(DG Allo, P5 2020).

In the case of KYP service delivery, with the aid of an e-portfolio One file system, telephone calls, what’s app messaging and email, KYP have encouraged reflective practice. This has provided an opportunity to support individual Home Managers to engage in the learning process enabling learners to develop skills and knowledge which they put into practice in the workplace. Learners and Managers have been supported to provide the required Expert Witness Testimonies under the guidance of the Assessor. This has been used to confirm their work practice and competence when working in the home over a set period of time. Popovici and Mironov (2014) discussed that students are deeply aware of the changes brought over by the digital technologies, by their impact on the learning process.

Due to this increased contact, Managers who work with KYP are now more understanding of the Diploma and Apprenticeship process and are gaining knowledge themselves about the knowledge, skills, and behaviours that learners require to meet the criteria of the Standards. Managers are more involved and are able to work with the learners to provide the performance evidence and recognise any gaps in knowledge. The ADKAR organisational change model (Hiatt, 2006) is focused on the needs of the individuals: Awareness of the need for change (easier in response to the COVID reality); have the Desire to participate in and support the change (such as motivated by self-directed life-long learning); have the Knowledge necessary for change (including where and how to find a suitable technology platform and learning to use appropriate tools for delivery and assessment); Ability to implement required skills and behaviours (including practice with both giving and receiving feedback); Reinforcement to sustain the change (such as program evaluation). The ADKAR model needs to be addressed from the perspective of both learners and educators. As an example, Delgaty (2015) described an action research project where they implemented a distance education module consisting of many of the elements that we will describe in this article, including independent activities, wikis and discussion forums enabling both individual and group tasks. They identified a diverse set of roles that were required for effective implementation, including administrator, manager, content expert and online facilitator. KYP post COVID -19 will continue to provide our revised service delivery to learners and managers. It has demonstrated macro groups learners may become lost in the fog of continuous information discussed without a learner intervention towards understanding or reflection. (Anseel, F., & Ong, M. (2020) ) Regular contact and involvement with each individual Manager has proved very successful and motivating for the learners and has made for more robust assessments. Skills, knowledge and behaviours are more interlinked throughout the process leading to more confidence when working with individuals.

References Anseel, F., & Ong, M. (2020). Reflection: Behavioral Strategies to Structure and Accelerate Learning from Experience. Allo, M. D. (2020). Is the online learning good in the midst of Covid-19 Pandemic? The case of EFL learners. Jurnal Sinestesia, 10(1), 1-10. Sandars, J., Correia, R., Dankbaar, M., de Jong, P., Goh, P. S., Hege, I., … & Pusic, M. (2020). Twelve tips for rapidly migrating to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. MedEdPublish, 9.
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Effective assessment of individual student learning

There should be an emphasis and a need for curricular development towards learner attributes promoted by providers. Predicated upon preparation, learners for work place strategies aimed at the development of career competence and underpinning knowledge skills: that is, how an individual might personally manage the exigencies of life, learning and work throughout his/her lifetime.

The content of career development learning in essence represents learning about self and learning about the world of work. Process learning represents the development of the skills necessary to navigate a successful and satisfying life/career (McMahon, Patton, & Tatham, 2003, p. 6).

There are a number of career development learning frameworks which may usefully inform the conceptualisation and the delivery of work-integrated learning in higher education. The career development learning framework which clearly and simply captured student-related issues pertaining to the world of-work, self-reflection, and transferability across learning and employment settings was the DOTS model of career development (Watts, 2006). The dimensions and elements of the DOTS model (viz. Self-Awareness, Opportunity Awareness, Decision-Making Learning, and Transition Learning). Self-Awareness refers to an individual’s understanding of his/her career identity; Opportunity Awareness refers to an individual’s knowledge of opportunities within the world-of-work; Decision-Making Learning refers to the skills of making choices with regard to securing opportunities in the world-of-work; and Transitional Learning refers to the knowledge and skills considered necessary for entry into the workforce.

The evidence presented for the correspondence between work-integrated learning and the theoretical elements of career development learning may not surprise career development practitioners whose profession has been involved in the delivery of work-integrated learning under the aegis of career education.

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Learning environment- Health and Social Care

Learning is an individual process where new knowledge, skills and attitudes gives each individual a unique understanding of thinking and action. A good learning environment creates motivation, activity, context with reality, and provides an atmosphere for learning (Alvarstein & Johannesen, 2001). Delivery of learning was achieved by lessons in schools and lectures in universities, together with practical on-the-job work experience or apprenticeships to acquire skills and reading to acquire knowledge.


Employees in Health and Social Care settings; must now be able to identify problems, analyze and finally solve them. (Alvarstein & Johannesen, 2001) Change has also taken place in the educational sector at an accelerating rate. Many factors have contributed to this change but those primarily responsible are (Race, 1998):

  • A knowledge explosion.
  • A communications revolution.
  • Rapidly increasing awareness of the processes where effective learning is achieved.
  • The empowerment of learners.

With the changes taking place, teachers and tutors have been disempowered and many learners are now increasingly paying for their own training and with that comes an expectation of change from teachers and tutors in terms of what they should be delivering. This has resulted in the conceptualization of ‘student centred learning’. Race (1998) argues that learning has always been student centred, but that teaching, and training have not.


According to Race (1998) there are five factors that underpin successful learning:

  • wanting to learn (or intrinsic motivation);
  • needing to learn (or extrinsic motivation);
  • learning-by-doing (practice, trial and error, experiential learning);
  • learning through feedback (other people’s reactions, praise, criticism);

 making sense of what has been learned (‘digesting’, reflecting, getting one’s head around it)


PBL could be able to be applied across all industries and professions because in the application there is a diversification away from the pedagogical model toward an andragogical model that makes the student more responsible for the process of learning and the provision of a solution or solutions. Intrinsic in this model is the ability of the student to cooperate and learn in a group environment, as they would in the workplace, and together, apply creativity to formulate the solutions to designated problems. The student effectively changes from a passive to an active role (Chen-Jung, 2003)

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Work based learning – Learning needs

In order to meet the learning needs of adults, many of the fundamental assumptions of traditional education and delivery models have had to be rethought. These include assumptions about the nature of knowledge and the mechanisms for learning. In addition to these academic issues have come a series of institutional, administrative and cultural challenges. In this paper, the rationale for change and the means for achieving it are described. Many of the theories of learning discussed here are widely understood to provide the basis for alternative forms of provision (recent examples include theories by Malloch, Cairns, Evans & O’Connor [2011] and Illeris [2011]), but there has been less translation of these ideas into practical programs for delivery.

Work-based learning has been described as the linkage of learning to a work role. Levy et al. (1989, p. 4) identify three components to work-based learning which they claim provides an essential contribution to the learning, by:

● identifying and providing relevant off-the-job learning opportunities;

● structuring learning in the workplace;

● providing appropriate on-job training/learning opportunities.

The use of a structured model of reflective practice used with students from two different courses of study, each undertaking work-based learning in quite different contexts, with an aim to assess the usefulness of a structured model of reflection for general use in work-based learning. To promote deep learning; learning where change in fundamental ideas and attitudes could be effected through work-based activity. It was anticipated that the questions that underpin the model would enable such learning.

Finding appropriate assessment strategies is a significant factor in ensuring the sustainability of experience-based education in universities. Davidge-Johnston (2007) observes, however, that using traditional assessment models can be problematic because it is ‚difficult to validly measure learning in one learning model with tools designed for a completely different model‛ (p. 140). Many traditional methods do not address or adequately measure the new kinds of learning that this type of education seeks to engender, such as the so-called soft skills, graduate capabilities/attributes or personal development and transformation. These aspects of learning do not fit neatly into ‚proscribed and specific learning outcomes‛ (Hodges, 2008, p.11).

Hodges et al. (2004) argue ‚the multiple variables that affect both the design and subsequent implementation of assessment practices, particularly in cooperative education, will inhibit attempts to produce absolute instrument validity and assessor impartiality‛ (p. 50). It is not, however, an impossible task and may require inventive thinking, which presents opportunities‚ that are not ‘boxed in’ by traditional assessment methods‛ (Woolf & Yorke, 2010, p. 35)

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Pre-COVID-19 Apprenticeships

The new apprenticeship regulations (ESFA, 2019a) and, in particular, the stipulation that all funded training must be off-the-job, was designed to address past abuses of the system, whereby on-the-job training amounted to no more than assessment of (existing) skills without necessarily constituting any learning or training. Instead, these regulations focus on off-the-job training as the only fundable (and thus regulated) element, whilst on-the-job training is defined as ‘practising’ in the work environment the knowledge and skills acquired through the off-thejob element. There is no requirement on employers to provide on-the-job training.

All employers provided (and focused first and foremost) on their own in-house training programmes, which was the training designed to prepare staff for certain job roles, regardless of any apprenticeship training. This included off-the-job training for all staff, through both, initial induction and staff development, in the form of in-house training events and/or access to external provision. As a result, there was little difference in the training provided for apprenticed and non-apprenticed new recruits. Indeed, the main difference was the underpinning knowledge gained through the off-the-job element of apprenticeship.

Drawing on Fuller and Unwin’s (2003) Expansive-Restrictive Framework, the ten employers in our sample fell into two groups: those adopting an expansive approach to apprenticeship and on-the-job training (Engineering, Construction and IT); and those whose approach was more restrictive (Retail and Social Care). Employers utilising an expansive approach provided their own comprehensive training programmes. Whilst these included off-the-job provision (both internal, and access to external training) the focus was on extensive on-the-job training. This was carefully planned and part of a strategy of workforce development. It was designed to develop occupational competence of iv rounded employees, who had an understanding of the organisations as a whole and their positions within them. Many employers had developed their own in-house training plans against which they monitored the apprentices’ progress in a range of skill areas. Whilst the apprenticeship criteria were covered by the companies’ on-the-job training, the latter was commonly far broader and in-depth than what was required by the frameworks or standards.

Nevertheless, these employers valued apprenticeship as a model of learning. The off-the-job element provided vital theoretical knowledge and understanding to underpin occupational practice. The frameworks or standards also constituted a useful structure, and employers sought to organise the apprentices’ on-the-job training in line with the off-the-job element of the apprenticeship (delivered in day-release classroom education) so as to facilitate the integration of theory and practice. In these organisations, mentoring and shadowing were crucial elements of on-the-job training, the aim of which was to develop apprentices’ expertise and to gradually initiate them into a community of practice. Apprentices would be working alongside a senior worker or trainer for much of the entire duration of the apprenticeship, whilst gradually taking on more responsibility. They therefore held the dual status of learner and employee throughout the apprenticeship. 8. In the case of the employers under the restrictive approach (Retail and Social Care), the main focus was also on the in-house training for specific job roles.

However, these were relatively narrow when compared with the occupational roles in the companies adopting an expansive approach. The training was delivered predominantly off-the-job and, whilst staff development programmes were in place, much training was front-loaded (delivered through an induction).

This was particularly critical in social care, where all staff attended training based on the Care Certificate before they started working with vulnerable adults. The apprenticeship closely matched this training. 9. In sharp contrast to employers in the expansive approach, apprentices in the retail and social care organisations of our sample were first and foremost productive workers (rather than learners), who completed an apprenticeship within the designated 20% of their working time. What is more, this time allocation was not always protected. Indeed, all four employers indicated that they perceived the 20% off-the-job rule as the greatest challenge they were facing, arguing they could scarcely afford ‘losing’ a member of staff from the production process.

The apprenticeship was therefore quite separate from, rather than an integral part of, the apprentices’ workplace practice (i.e. the job roles they carried out). In these organisations, responsibility for the apprenticeship was firmly with the training provider, while employers were generally passive. The employer role was primarily to ‘line-manage’ apprentices, for example, by ensuring apprentices were given time to complete the off-the-job element, and to provide a point of contact for general support and feedback. During the apprentices’ time on the shop floor (80% of their working time), there was little or no on-the-job training provided by the employer (beyond the initial training for all staff, which in any case was limited). Indeed, when asked about on-the-job training, managers and trainers of all four organisations highlighted the importance of workplace learning as occurring naturally as a result of day-to-day practice. Apprentices were encouraged to apply the knowledge and skills they had gained through the off-the-job element, but they did not receive any structured support.


‘’apprentices would definitely learn more. For example, legal and governance – with somebody that we’d just recruit into the business… we wouldn’t necessarily educate them on the ins and outs of [for example] trading standards. Because that’s just not necessarily in their role…. Whereas, somebody that we’re investing in, that we want to be a future store manager, we would want to expose them to as much of that that is relevant and at some point in their life they might need that information’’

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‘How do we assess’


Assessment is a critical endeavour with implications for students, universities, industry and the wider community. The measurement of student learning, however, presents many challenges, particularly in the context of cooperative education, work-integrated learning, work-based learning, service learning and other models of learning through participation (LTP).


Finding appropriate assessment strategies is a significant factor in ensuring the sustainability of experience-based education. Davidge-Johnston (2007) observes, however, that using traditional assessment models can be problematic because it is‚ difficult to validly measure learning in one learning model with tools designed for a completely different model‛ (p. 140). Many traditional methods do not address or adequately measure the new kinds of learning that this type of education seeks to engender, such as the so-called soft skills, graduate capabilities/attributes or personal development and transformation. These aspects of learning do not fit neatly into ‚proscribed and specific learning outcomes‛ (Hodges, 2008, p.11).


  1. Determine the aspect/s of learning to be assessed (e.g., application of theory to practice and discipline-specific soft skills) and what kind of evidence of learning can be used.
  2. Decide what students need to achieve and be clear about what will be measured, taking into account any accreditation or certification requirements.
  3. Agree on who is involved in the assessment process and clarify roles in terms of how stakeholders will be involved, whether this be in only some aspects of assessment (i.e., host supervisor involved in formative assessment only) or all of the assessment (i.e., the academic supervisor);
  4. Provide support and training for anyone involved in assessment as stakeholders may be unfamiliar with the aspect of learning, situation of learning and/or some of the methods used for assessment.
  5. Consider the situation/context of learning which will vary between students and ensure the assessment package is flexible and realistic enough to account for variations while also being equitable to all students.

We have to acknowledge Hodges et al. (2004) who suggests there are dangers in concentrating heavily on performance measurement and reliability that ‚lead assessment designers to focus on more tangible and identifiable technical skills and competencies at the expense of more difficult-to-measure soft generic skills and competencies‛ (p.53). Other authors warn that assessment of valuable professional skills such as ‚tacit knowing, intuition and artistry‛ (Zegwaard et al., 2003) or the ‚poorly defined but essential elements of the graduate attributes‛ (Hungerford, Gilbert, Kellett, McLaren, Molan, & Washington-King, 2010, p.199) can be overlooked by such a narrow focus. These skills fall into the list of ‚wicked competencies‛ defined by Knight (2007) who also identifies graduate attributes and complex achievements in this group. He further contends that a competency such as creativity or critical thinking ‚cannot be precisely defined, takes on different shapes in different contexts and is likely to keep on developing‛ (p.1)

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Adult Training

The adult training project monitors and reviews adult learning trends and policy developments. The focus is on how work-based learning help people develop the skills that give them greater chances of finding jobs and improving their careers.

  • Apprenticeships in work-based learning
  • In recent years the value of apprenticeships in combating youth unemployment has come to the fore. The Centre, in cooperation with the Commission, is helping to create apprenticeship alliances across Europe. It is also preparing country reviews on apprenticeships.

  • Assessing VET’s benefits
  • Cedefop is investigating the benefits of VET at micro (individual, enterprise), meso (sectors, social groups and communities) and macro (economy and society, country and European Union) levels.

  • Early leaving from education and training
  • Lifelong learning begins in youth, and early leaving from education and training has a negative effect on both education and employment. Cedefop is currently reviewing European and national strategies that aim to keep young people in education and training and lower the dropout rate.

  • Lifelong Guidance
  • Guidance and counselling should accompany learners and workers at every transition. The Lifelong guidance project reviews related policy and strategy developments in the Member States. It identifies successful initiatives and makes recommendations for future work in Europe and individual countries.

  • Teachers and Trainers’ professional development
  • The Teachers and Trainers’ professional development project monitors trends affecting the roles, skills and training of teachers and trainers who work in vocational education and training, including adult learning and work-based training. The project promotes knowledge-sharing between practitioners and decision-makers and makes proposals on the professional development of vocational teachers and trainers.

  • Validation of non-formal and informal learning
  • The project reviews trends in Validation of non-formal and informal learning – i.e. of learning that takes place outside formal education and training bodies – and supports the development and implementation of validation systems in Member States.
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    Evaluating COVID on learning

    Evaluation mapping activity, coupled with responses from a learner reflection review, provides the opportunity for training providers to explore the alignment of each apprenticeship intended purpose and learning outcomes within the evaluation objectives and methods to assess success during learning.

    This would enable a review/intervention to identify any gaps in either the way the intended purpose of study is being articulated or the evaluation questions or methods being used to assess whether that purpose (or intended learning / outcomes) were being met.

    Research towards several design shifts to individual apprenticeship learning may occur as a result of mapping activity. For example, an initial exploration of the intended outcomes of the Level 5 LACW reveals an intention to develop leadership skills in adult learners, however current research has suggested the mapping activity revealed there was no aspect of program delivery or evaluation specifically addressing this outcome. This may lead to a focused consideration of whether leadership was is in fact being developed through the apprenticeship standard, or if this was just an incidental development due work-based competence and experience.

    The mapping activity may reveal a substantial amount of qualitative, post program data has to be collected across apprenticeships, however a gap analysis may also provide a clearer picture of a lack of data being collected prior to engagement in IAG and career education interventions.

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    Learner Identity

    Students transitioning to the workforce must connect with their intended profession and ‘become’ professionals (Jackson 2016). They must feel confident and suitably equipped to consider themselves worthy of graduate-level employment (Holmes 2015). Jackson (2017) draws on Baxter Magolda’s (1998) self-authorship framework in describing the stages that students must transition through in their development of what she terms ‘pre-professional identity’. Others (Creamer and Laughlin 2005; Pizzolato 2005) have also used self-authorship as a framework to conceptualise PI in higher education (HE) students.

    At the first stage in the framework, students develop a basic understanding of the norms, expectations and values in order to frame their behaviour so it is appropriate for their chosen profession.

    They then progress through stages where they are no longer accepting that every way shown to them is correct but instead questioning existing knowledge and practice. They seek effective ways of doing things and start to develop the stance of a critical practitioner. Finally, they become ‘immersed’ in their profession, collaborating with others and actively contributing to change and new ways of working

    Project-based learning can be another effective approach for developing PI (see, for example, Tan et al. 2016; Wiele et al. 2017). Wiele and colleagues found Marketing student engagement with ‘real’ clients through project-based consultancy challenged students’ self-perception and encouraged them to think beyond grade achievement.

    They assert, ‘the culture of the firm, the immersion in the business context and high autonomous interaction with the project stakeholders effectively allow the learners to find themselves as professionals’ (60). Continuing the theme of authenticity, Lucas and colleagues (2014) advocated the importance of real world problem-solving through – for example – competitions, projects, and entrepreneurial pitches to industry panels in helping to develop Engineering students to ‘think and act like’ Engineers. Vaughan (2017) asserted the importance of workplace learning in shaping identity and disposition. She argues that opportunities for capability and identity development are central to the workplace and learner – in this study, apprentices – exposure to significant learning experiences (termed ‘vocational thresholds’) helped to define their vocational identity.

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    Literature reviews

    Advice on literature reviews pretty well always say something like – the literature review should say what’s already been said about your topic – or – you need to bring together the particular literatures that your study is going to use.

    I say this kind of thing myself. But the trouble with this advice is that it ignores/overlooks/downplays the ways in which fields of knowledge have historically been constructed.

    Some writing advice, including mine, also often says situating your study in a field means understanding the development, key figures and key debates in the field. And there is a problem with this advice too. It doesn’t really explain what understanding the history of the field means, why it’s important and what you need to do and do about it. So let me have a go at an explanation.

    History helps us understand the way things are now. And right now many fields of knowledge are a problem. They didn’t get that way overnight. They have been produced, over time, in very particular ways. Put simply, the knowledges in a discipline or field are highly likely to represent quite particular world views.

    What do I mean by this? Well, many academic disciplines in the global North do not draw on knowledges from the global South. They pay no heed to Indigenous knowledges. They may also maintain highly restrictive conventions, lines of interpretation and modes of knowledge production which are classed, raced, gendered, heteronormative, neurotypical.

    These historically produced field/disciplinary blinkers aren’t necessarily a permanent fixture. They can be removed. Or at least the removal can start here and now, in the present. In your literatures review.

    Doing a literatures review which uncritically reports what’s already been said about your topic runs a serious risk of unthinkingly perpetuating skewed knowledge traditions. Just saying what your study builds on, without reflecting on its time, place, culture, is a recipe for reproducing a knowledge status quo.

    So why not take the opportunity presented in the literature review to educate yourself about the social life of knowledges. Understanding the development, key figures and key debates in a field is much more than accounting for how things are. It is also about asking evaluative questions such as

    • On what basis was the field established?
    • Who got to speak? who gets to speak?
    • What was written about what, when and for whom? How has this changed over time and in what ways?
    • In whose interests did this research and writing work? Does it still work this way? How is it changing?

    Now this kind of reading and questioning does not simply examine who is foregrounded and cited – but also who is not. So there are two other questions to ask:

    • What kind of knowledges, interpretations and authors are missing or marginalised?
    • Are there any patterns to these omissions and sidelining?

    If you undertake a critical evaluation of the literatures and it is clear that there are systematic omissions, then it is important to search to see if some of the missing materials are actually available somewhere. They may of not be in university libraries. They may be elsewhere in community archives, online and/or in the kinds of books that academics dont ask their libraries to buy.

    And if you do locate the knowledges made marginal in and by the field, it is then not a matter of just throwing in a few citations to give the appearance of inclusivity.

    No. If the result of your critical reading of your field results in finding literatures not often recognised and valued, it is important to read them – and to hear what they say. To see whether what they say challenges the status quo in the field, and if so how. And it is important to note how your understandings are changed through taking these new sources seriously.

    Reading against the grain of the field in such a way becomes the basis of a very bespoke literatures review. You take the historically skewed nature of knowledge and its various production processes to heart. You don’t produce a lit review that mindlessly reproduces what’s already there.

    Your critical evaluative reading of the literatures creates new possibilities of and for your project – and at the same time contributes towards producing a more equitable field and discipline.