Work based learning (WBL)

The learning culture within the healthcare sector has become task orientated, resulting in work-based learning becoming subjective (Attenborough et al. 2019; Nevalainen et al. 2018). 

Arundell et al.’s (2018) qualitative study examined the views of registered care workers and newly inducted care workers. It was found that registered staff were disappointed in new care workers’ lack of confidence and underpinning knowledge and skill. Ferrandez – berrueco et al. (2016) report insufficient time and a lack of preparation for supporting WBL, suggesting there is difficulty ensuring the workplace environment met the conditions of WBL.

This view is consistent with the findings of Kemp et al. (2016), where learners who could not focus on tasks set within the training delivery component experienced negative support from the learning environment and tutor.

Adult learning Apprenticeship

The core assumption is that the learner moves from peripheral participation into full participation, an idea of learning influenced by Lave and Wenger’s (1991) proposition of ‘legitimate peripheral participation’. In contrast to Lave and Wenger, Gherardi (2009) points out that workplace learning is a process where the practice is derived from the community.

Thus, it is argued in this article that the development of vocational learning includes a central and enhancing position in a workplace community and that the learning process is linked to the sociocultural context of practice. According to Billings et al. (2021) and Yau et al. (2021), the care sector has seen a shift to adopt a new purpose and revised focus towards learning and task-based practice., learning behaviour, and academic achievements of students (Du Rocher, 2020; Mazzetti et al., 2020; Zimmerman, 2000).

WBL apprenticeship as in Fig (1) Fjellström and Kristmansson (2016) considered integrated practices to develop vocational competence. Often, the quality of workplace learning has been considered an issue, and, thus, learning in the workplace can benefit from being supplemented by experiences. Learners eventually experience and interpret when they participate in workplace learning; supporting Billet (2006) opinion that experience is shaped by the environment.


Figure above – An apprenticeship curriculum according to Fjellström and Kristmansson (2016).

Swager et al. (2015) underlined interaction and argued that guidance widely includes psychosocial support, structure-providing interventions (matching learners and trainers, as well as organising assessments) and didactical interventions to promote educational goals via goal-setting, selecting and sequencing tasks and
providing support.

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