Work-based learning apprenticeships

In work-based learning, learners’ motivation is considered a relevant contributor to the learning process (Kersh and Evans 2010).

In career development and counselling individual perceptions of abilities (Lent et al. 1994) have been highlighted and standardised ability self-estimate measures have been developed (see Campbell et al. 1992; Harrington and Harrington 1996; Holland et al. 1994).

Learners’ personalities, backgrounds, and environments are significant factors related to learning environments at a workplace (Kersh and Evans 2010). In the developmental approach (see e.g., Super 1974, 1980) and during the early stage of career development, the focus is on educational and occupational decision-making (Kidd 2006).


Learners are engaged in processes when they pursue self-relevant goals in their daily lives (Dweck 2000; see also, Breckler and Greenwald 1986; Deci and Ryan 1991; Epstein 1990). In order to be able to influence and change belief systems and behavior patterns, data is needed from their structures and models. Earlier studies had linked Self-Direction (see Guglielmino and Guglielmino 1988; Brockett and Hiemstra 1991) to learning. Learning forms a path into changing intentions and behavior.

The three variables of Self-Direction in this research project were chosen to measure the hypothesized attitude domains of self-determination, self-regulation, and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in relation to apprenticeship as a choice for a future education path.


Individuals interact with their environment and derive information from it.

Work-related attitudes, habits, and interpersonal skills serve as important predictors of job success and satisfaction (Fitzgerald 1986). Deci and Ryan (1985) have shown how choices initiate and regulate self-determined behaviour’s, and how a person chooses to behave in anticipation of achieving self-related goals and satisfying organismic needs.

Individual predictive behavioural models, designed and specifically selected for time, target, space, and location, are proposed to be used for both curriculum planning and person-based guidance counseling when supporting students during transitional periods to Work-based learning (WBL) apprenticeships.

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